Why is HIV-2 not as common as HIV-1 around the world?
Most people living with HIV have HIV-1. Both types of HIV weaken the immune system, but HIV-2 tends develop more slowly and is less easy for people to transmit than HIV-1. Genetic differences between the two viruses means that there are some differences in how healthcare providers diagnose and treat HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Where is HIV-2 most prevalent?
HIV-2 occurs predominantly in West Africa, but has been reported in other countries, including the United States (2–4). When last assessed, 166 persons categorized as having HIV-2 infection were reported to CDC as cases of public health importance during 1987–2009 (5).
What are the differences between HIV-1 and HIV-2?
HIV-1 is the most common type of HIV and accounts for 95% of all infections, whereas HIV-2 is relatively uncommon and less infectious. HIV-2 is mainly concentrated in West Africa and the surrounding countries. HIV-2 is less fatal and progresses more slowly than HIV-1.
Why is HIV-2 less infectious?
HIV-2 is less infectious than HIV-1, with a five to ten fold lower rate of heterosexual transmission and a 20-30-fold lower rate of vertical transmission. This is likely to be a result of the lower level of viremia observed in HIV-2 than in HIV-1.
What CD4 stand for?
In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein that serves as a co-receptor for the T-cell receptor (TCR). CD4 is found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.
What kills CD4 cells?
Free HIV particles kill only CD4 T cells that are permissive, undergo productive infection, and die from caspase-3-mediated apoptosis. However, in human lymphoid tissues such as tonsil and spleen, activated and permissive cells constitute <5% of all CD4 T cells.
What foods increase CD4 count?
Eat foods high in these vitamins and minerals, which can help boost your immune system:
- Vitamin A and beta-carotene: dark green, yellow, orange, or red vegetables and fruit; liver; whole eggs; milk.
- B vitamins: meat, fish, chicken, grains, nuts, white beans, avocados, broccoli, and green leafy vegetables.
What is a normal CD4 count in a healthy person?
A normal CD4 count ranges from 500–1,200 cells/mm3 in adults and teens. In general, a normal CD4 count means that your immune system is not yet significantly affected by HIV infection. A low CD4 count indicates that your immune system has been affected by HIV and/or the disease is progressing.
How long can you live with a low CD4 count?
A person’s CD4 count at the start of treatment remains one of the strongest indicators of life expectancy. The life expectancy between those whose CD4 count is less than 200 at the start of treatment is 8 years less than those whose count is over 200 at the same time.
How can I boost my CD4 count?
The only way to increase your CD4 is to use HIV treatment (ART). Your doctor is giving you good information and advice. Nothing else, including multivitamins, supplements or herbal remedies can increase your CD4 count.